SELECT * FROM User where username = @usernameIn this case the database handles escaping any SQL control characters that might have been passed in with the @username parameter. The problem is that T-SQL code will also allow for the creation of queries from a combination of static text and user inputs. For example:
EXEC('SELECT * FROM User where userid = ' + @userid)In this case, if the @userid parameter was something like:
12345 OR 1=1It would still be possible for an attacker to execute a SQL injection attack -- even though stored procedures were in use.
Therefore, stored procedures can help to provide protection against SQL Injection attacks, but ultimately developers must understand the underlying causes of these vulnerabilities and build applications with the appropriate threats in mind.
Dig deeper on Building security into the SDLC (Software development life cycle)
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